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The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Soc Sci Res See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

research on domestic violence in South Asian societies emphasizes patriarchal ideology and the widespread subordinate status of women within their communities and families. Using data from 1, currently married women from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, we provide a thorough analysis of how the spread of mass education is associated with domestic violence among married women.

Introduction Extensive research confirms that domestic violence has escorts abq nm social, physical, and mental health consequences for victims Devries et al. Although domestic violence against women remains high in many world regions Diop-Sidibe et al. First, we provide a new theoretical framework for the study of variation in domestic violence that focuses on education.

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Our multilevel framework recognizes that changes in the community educational context restructure individual-level opportunities and constraints, which in turn affect individual behavior Alexander ; Coleman ; Durkheim []. Building on the life course perspective, this framework acknowledges the importance of changes in the educational context over time as well as the sequencing of these changes Madrid NY adult personals and Barber ; Elder Our framework is also intergenerational and identifies how the educational experiences of multiple generations can protect women against domestic violence.

Because most studies of the Want a Camrose one now of mass education are historical, empirical limitations preclude the exploration of important theoretical issues regarding the consequences of mass education Barber and Axinn ; Caldwell et al.

In a setting where the spread of mass education occurred recently, however, we have direct information about its spread, consequences, and the individual-level behaviors that produced those consequences. Theoretical Framework Scholars argue that patriarchal ideology, a ificant component of the South Asian cultural configuration, is responsible for the high prevalence of domestic violence in South Asia Ahmad et al.

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This cultural configuration evolved through Hindu religious doctrines that emphasize strong hierarchal relations based on gender male supremacycaste, and seniority Carvalho Beautiful couples seeking casual dating West Fargo Majumdar ; Naved et al.

For example, according to Manusmriti 9. Although Hindu ideology was originally associated with a single ethnic group i. In many parts of South Asia this ideology continues to be pervasive, even among non-Indo-Aryan groups.

As a result, both as an ideological and normative force, Hindu religious doctrine strongly influences marital practices and relationships in Nepal, including the acceptability of domestic violence Acharya and Bennett In Nepal, because of social, political, and economic isolation from other countries, exposure Horny in Cranston bc foreign cultures and ideologies remained uncommon until the mids Berreman ; Bista Nepalese families had little exposure to different views and beliefs about social and gender relationships, such as those emphasizing independence and personal freedom, gender equality, and marital relationships based on individual choice Macfarlane ; Smith The dramatic social and economic changes in Nepal in more recent decades, however, has afforded greater exposure to Women want nsa Lyndon Kentucky cultures and, in turn, has led to ideological shifts English ; Panday In the mids, Nepal began receiving a large portion of foreign aid in order to support the public education system and increase infrastructure to improve the living conditions among the rural poor Panday As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in primary and secondary schools, wage work, transportation and communication infrastructure, and mass media Beutel and Axinn ; Jamison and Lockheed Extensive research shows that, among other aspects of social change, exposure to community educational context and educational experiences have particularly dramatic consequences for many dimensions of family change, including the entry into marriage, marital arrangements, childbearing, and the nature of marital relationships Allendorf and Ghimire ; Ghimire et al.

Spread of Mass Education and Domestic Free sex with married women Massachusetts Because Nepal was kept in complete isolation from the rest of the world with a ban on the general public attending school, formal schooling was a privilege for the elite.

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After the ruling class — The Rana Family regime — was overthrown inthere was a proliferation of schools throughout Nepal. The historical background of inequality in schooling based on caste assisted Friend for today or ongoing setting the stage for gendered inequality. The spread of education has been a powerful vehicle for importing Western ideas in Nepal Caldwell ; Caldwell et al.

That is, because the Nepalese educational system and course Milf dating in Brasher falls were adopted from the British educational system, the school environment exposes pupils to Western ideas and values such as individual freedom, equality, independence, and consensual and late marriage Sharma In a Hindu context like rural Nepal, young people who live close to schools in early childhood are more likely to have exposure to male-female interactions outside of the traditional family setting, providing a cultural model of cross-gender interactions that are built on consensual behavior and not dictated by hierarchical, patriarchal norms.

Second, the spread of schools increases the likelihood that individual Free sex with married women Massachusetts their family members—have the opportunity to go to school themselves Elder ; Axinn and Barber For parents or children to have the opportunity to go to school, schools must be located nearby, or parents must send their children to live near schools.

In Nepal, educated parents are less likely to themselves engage in domestic violence, thereby encouraging their children to also enter and maintain violence-free marriages. From this perspective, the values and beliefs that more highly educated parents teach their children Naughty ladies seeking hot sex Scottish Borders discourage their sons from perpetrating violence, Married bm looking 4 Fairford 4 now will likely discourage their daughters from tolerating such behavior.

At least three mechanisms are relevant, beginning with the formation of the marriage.

The increase in communication and affection and reduction in disagreement and conflict is likely to encourage mutual respect and equality within marriages Allendorf and Ghimire ; Ghimire et al. In the Nepalese setting, this process is likely to involve young people reorienting their values away from historical Hindu principles, including patriarchy, and toward more Western ideas regarding independence, equality, and interpersonal relations based on mutual consent Allendorf and Ghimire ; Hoelter et al.

In Nepal, the spread of mass education also gave women new skills and credentials, providing them with a route to greater economic independence from their families and husbands Axinn and Barber Educational change has Naughty housewives looking hot sex Kapolei only given women a new framework for thinking about the in acceptability of domestic violence, but has also given them new opportunities to gain self-sufficiency, enabling them to leave the household in response to violence.

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Methods 3. Data The data used to test our hypotheses came from a study of communities in the Western Chitwan Valley in Nepal.

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The neighborhoods in our study closely Bynum bbw seeks male the characteristics of the entire Chitwan Valley population Barber et al. The CVFS selected a systematic probability sample of neighborhoods in Western Chitwan and defined a neighborhood as a geographic cluster of five to fifteen households.

Once a community was selected, a household census along with a household relationship grid was administered in all households in the selected communities. This process yielded a sample of 1, currently married women. Out of the sample of 1, Radstock women who want to fuck women, 8 women have missing information, resulting in a final analytic sample of 1, married women.

In the standardized interviews, individuals were asked questions about their family background, personal characteristics, experiences, and childhood community context.

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The LHC portion of the survey collected information on residence, marriage, childbearing, schooling, travel, and work experience Axinn Lonely wife Banner al. CVFS survy practice involves employing multiple interviewers to a household so that all eligible members for individual insterview could be interviewed simultaneously and independently using identical survey instruments.

This also helped to create privacy in which women would feel comfortable answering potentially difficult questions truthfully. Despite worldwide engagement in understanding and addressing this issue, there is no standard definition of domestic violence.

Some urge a broad definition that Housewives seeking real sex HI Kaunakakai 96748 any act of omission that causes harm to women or subordinates.

In spite of declarations against domestic violence and social actions deed to reduce it, many cultures—including Mature women Spokane wi one we study here—have beliefs, norms, and social institutions that legitimize it Mathur ; Yount et al.

For example, in Nepal, a physical altercation instigated by another person would be socially unacceptable and punishable, but the same interaction instigated by the husband is considered normative Heise et al. Thus, the multi-dimensional and culturally-specific nature Lady want real sex Arroyo Hondo domestic violence makes it difficult to measure Raj and Silverman ; Sarkar Because of these complexities, in this study we focus on one discrete, less ambiguous dimension of domestic violence: exposure to physical violence.

It is important to recognize that a limitation of our measure is that we do not have data on the timing or Hot sex finder Hardwick Massachusetts of violence within marriage. To address the fact that we cannot for temporal ordering—except that the physical violence occurred during the course of marriage—all covariates in our model are pre-marital Free adult chat 83672, allowing us to maintain temporal order despite the lack of data on the precise timing of violence.